Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period 1644-1912, Volume 1

By Arthur W. Hummel

Contributors comprise: ok. Biggerstaff, H. Dubs, J.K. Fairbank, Fang Chao-ying, L.C.Goodrich, Hu Shih, T.Numata, E. Swisher, Teng Ssu-yu, C.M. Wilbur, H. Wilhelm. Hummel’s biographical dictionary is still the only necessary reference instrument for chinese language heritage for the reason that 1644. It used to be first released in 1943–44. ‘The most sensible historical past of China of the final three hundred years’ – Hu Shih.

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There on December four, 1644, he enthroned himself "King of the nice Western nation" C*Wfii[E) with the reign-title, Ta-shun *llll· His capital, Chengtu, used to be renamed Hsi-ching i§}j( "Western Capital", the place govt departments §i*± [Ti-liu hsien-hsi wen-ch'ao, 2/23a, 4/8a, lla, 25a; 'litiJB~;&;~ Ch'ang-Chao ho-chih kao (1904), chilan27, 29-32; Yeh Ch'ang-ch'ih, Ts'ang-shu chishih shih (see below P'an Tsu-yin) chiian 6; preface to Index to T'ai P'ing Yii Lan-Harvard Yenching Institute Sinological Index sequence, no.

E. ~ ~ (T. Ja~, H. tift, 1755-1826). This variation, such as elements, 30 and 18 chilan, with a complement of two chuan, includes the next works: the licensed texts of the Wen-shih t'ung-i, 6 + three chuan, and of the Chiaoch'ou t'ung-i, three + 1 chilan; AGIII3-fJIJ Fang-chih lUeh-li, 2 chilan, a suite of essays at the approach to compiling neighborhood gazetteers; Hupeh t'ung-chih chien-ts'un kao (~~), four chilan,· Hupeh t'ung-chih wei-ch'eng kao <*J&~), 1 chuan; Ho-chou chih, three chilan; and Yung-ting hsien-chih, 10 chilan-the final 4 being fragments of drafts of neighborhood gazeteers he compiled; his literary assortment, eight + 2 chilan, consisting mainly of biographies and of letters during which he mentioned ancient concerns with different students; and 5 different miscellaneous works on heritage.

Jehangir's kinfolk, attacked Kashgar and Yarkand. Ch'ang-ling used to be back despatched as normal Yang-wei to punish the invaders. sooner than he arrived at Aksu (early in 1831) the Khokandians had already retreated from the border. After investigating their court cases an contract was once reached with them wherein alternate was once resumed and tax on item was once remitted in go back for a uncertain promise of protecting the Hodjas in cost. In later years the Hodjas brought on minor disturbances-in 1846 (see lower than I-shan) and in 1857-and a major one lasting greater than fourteen years in 1864-78 (see lower than Tso Tsungt'ang).

He grew to become linked to the philosophical university of Yen Yuan [q. v. ]. approximately 1715 he wrote an account of the association and self-discipline of the 8 Banners, in 1 chuan, entitled 1iffq! Jit; Ch'i-chUn chih. it sounds as if within the Hsileh-hai lei-pien, revealed in 1831 (see below Ts'ao Jung), and within the moment sequence of the I! BftMtf Chao-tai ts'ung-shu. (1/489/13a; 15/3/14b and preface. ] DEAN R. WICKES CH'IN Hui-t'ien ~-IE (T. ttH~ H. ~~), Dec. 7, 1702-1764, Oct. four, professional, and pupil, 167 Ch'in Ch'in encouraged therefore to renew the research, he started to manage and enhance his outdated notes to be able to increasing the Tu-li t'ung-k'ao (which dealt basically with the rites of mourning ~ili.

Cheng Chih-lung [q. v. ] having surrendered to the Manchus, recommended that Cheng Ts'ai convey Chu I-hai to the Ch'ing forces and himself subscribe to the Manchu reason; yet this Cheng Ts'ai refused to do. Later while Cheng Ch'eng-kung [g. v. ] used to be aiding the Ming reason, he declined to obtain orders from Chu I-hai, even if he cooperated with Cheng Ts'ai in a crusade opposed to the Manchu armies in Fukien. For a interval of 1 12 months (1647) Chu I-hai, now with few assets, sought safeguard at a number of locations alongside the Fukien coast whereas the Ming loyalists of the province recovered Chien-ning, and twenty-seven different districts.

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