War Against All Puerto Ricans: Revolution and Terror in America's Colony

In 1950, after over fifty years of army profession and colonial rule, the Nationalist occasion of Puerto Rico staged an unsuccessful armed rebellion opposed to the us. Violence swept during the island: assassins have been despatched to kill President Harry Truman, gunfights roared in 8 cities, police stations and put up places of work have been burned down. with the intention to suppress this rebellion, the united states military deployed millions of troops and bombarded cities, marking the 1st time in historical past that the united states govt bombed its personal citizens.

Nelson A. Denis tells this strong tale during the debatable lifetime of Pedro Albizu Campos, who served because the president of the Nationalist social gathering. A legal professional, chemical engineer, and the 1st Puerto Rican to graduate from Harvard legislation college, Albizu Campos used to be imprisoned for twenty-five years and died below mysterious conditions. through tracing his lifestyles and dying, Denis indicates how the adventure of Albizu Campos is a part of a bigger tale of Puerto Rico and US colonialism.

Through oral histories, own interviews, eyewitness money owed, congressional testimony, and lately declassified FBI documents, War opposed to All Puerto Ricans tells the tale of a forgotten revolution and its context in Puerto Rico’s historical past, from the USA invasion in 1898 to the modern day fight for self-determination. Denis presents an unflinching account of the gunfights, criminal riots, political intrigue, FBI and CIA covert job, and mass hysteria that observed this tumultuous interval in Puerto Rican history.

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On December 31, the most important sugar cane plantation at the island, valuable Guánica, went on strike. In early January 1934, the staff of Puerto Rico’s complete sugar have been striking—against not just their employers yet their very own exertions leaders. with no consulting the rank and dossier, the Federación Libre del Trabajo (the loose Federation of staff) had signed an island-wide hard work contract whose phrases did little for workers and left their wages almost unchanged. The federation leaders, so much of them conveniently ensconced within the Puerto Rican govt, had offered out the staff.

It was once now prior midday, yet not anyone had come or referred to as. as a substitute, Vidal spotted a number of extra automobiles parked outdoors the barbershop, such a lot of them belonging to police. Vidal squinted as one other motor vehicle drove up from the Santurce Insular Police station. WIAC radio—the most sensible information station at the island—was repeating every thing he’d learn in El Imparcial, so he tuned into NBC and listened in inflammation to numerous ads for fortunate Strike Cigarettes, Ex-Lax, Ipana Toothpaste Bucky Beaver, and the Roy Rogers speedy Shooter Hat.

23. Maldonado, Luis Muñoz Marín, 33; Bernier-Grand, Poet and flesh presser of Puerto Rico, 19. See additionally Benitez, Vida y Obra de Luis Muñoz Marín. 24. Muñoz Marín, Memorias, 34–35; Maldonado, Luis Muñoz Marín, 33–36. 25. Maldonado, Luis Muñoz Marín, 33; Bernier-Grand, Poet and flesh presser of Puerto Rico, 19. See additionally Benitez, Vida y Obra de Luis Muñoz Marín. 26. Maldonado, Luis Muñoz Marín, 38–39. See additionally Reynolds, Puerto Rican Patriot. 27. Aitken, Poet within the fort, seventy one. 28. Ibid. , sixty eight. See additionally Bernier-Grand, Poet and flesh presser of Puerto Rico, 25.

Eleven whilst the USA entered global conflict I, Albizu volunteered and served as a primary lieutenant within the US military. He helped arrange and teach the 3rd Battalion Infantry of Puerto Rico and was once the one “colored” officer at Camp Las Casas, the military education base at the island. either within the military and through an army travel in the course of the American South, Albizu encountered common racism: he observed it on buses and trains, at lunch counters, and in restrooms, shops, submit workplaces, or even church buildings. He heard it while squaddies joked in the back of his again, no longer figuring out that he understood each note.

Mahony, “Wells Fargo Fugitive Captured,” Hartford Courant, February eight, 2008. 20. Danica Cotto, “Puerto Rico Rushes to chop Budgets and Renegotiate Loans. ” 21. “Census: Puerto Rico Poverty Up, source of revenue Down,” Caribbean company, September 23, 2012. 22. Alvarez, “Economy and Crime Spur New Puerto Rican Exodus. ” 23. Ibid. 24. Yoon, “Puerto Rico Downgrade places Bond Deal in highlight. ” 25. David Greene, “Puerto Ricans combat with excessive Crime,” NPR, February 7, 2013. 26. Eric Lichtblau, “28 Puerto Rico Police stuck in Drug Smuggling,” l. a. occasions, August 15, 2001.

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